Student Development Theory at a Glance

Psychosocial Theories

Chickering's Theory of Identity Development (The Seven Vectors):

1. Developing Competence- Intellectually (the "thinking me")- development of critical thinking an intellectual curiosity outside of the formal classroom; Physically (the "physical me")- development of the ability to handle one's self in physical and manual activities; Interpersonally (the "aware me")- development of the ability to be a part of a cooperative effort, understand the motives and concerns of others.

2. Managing Emotions- recognize and accept emotions and appropriately express and control them

3. Moving Through Autonomy Toward Interdependence- evidenced in the growth of self-sufficiency, less need for approval of others, the recognition of interdependence (role of self in the larger community/society/campus)

4. Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships- develop intercultural & interpersonal tolerance, appreciate difference; create healthy, intimate relationships

5. Establishing Identity- acknowledge differences in identity development based on gender, ethnic background & sexual orientation

6. Developing Purpose- develop career goals, make commitments to personal interests & activities, establish strong interpersonal commitments

7. Developing Integrity- development of a personally valid set of beliefs and values that provide a guide to behavior and emotions

Josselson's Theory of Identity Development in Women:

- Foreclosures: Purveyors of the Heritage- women who graduate from college with identity commitment with no experience in identity crisis, little identity change, seek security in relationships

- Identity Achievements: Pavers of the Way- break psychologocal ties to childhood & form separate, distinct identities, reorganize sense of self and identity, commit to who they are in relation to others & decide how they want to contribute to others' lives

- Moratoriums: Daughters of the Crisis- unstable time of experimenting & searching for new identities, internalize the paradox there are many ways to be right, sticks with one way and if challenged, crisis will ensure

- Identity Diffusions: Lost and Sometimes Found- lack of crisis & commitment, low ego development, high anxiety, withdraws from situations, fails to internalize varied experiences, little attachment to inner self

Schlossberg's Transition Theory:

- The three transition types are anticipated (ex. expecting to graduate from college), unanticipated (ex. divorce, sudden death, not being accepted to graduate school), or a nonevent.

- Transitions have context and are determined by the individuals relationship to the environmental setting in which the transition is occurring.

- The impact of the transition varies depending on the alterations it causes in an individual's daily life.

- The 4 "S's" that affect one's ability to cope with transition are: Situation (trigger, timing, control, role change, duration, previous experience with a similar transition, concurrent stress, assessment), Self (two kinds: personal & demographic characteristics- SES, gender, age, health, ethnicity, culture, etc.- and psychological resources- ego development, outlook, commitment, resilience, spirituality, self-efficacy, values, etc.), Support (types- intimate, family, friends, institution-, functions- affects, affirmation, aid, honest feedback- & measurements- stable and changing supports), and Strategies (three categories- modify the situation, control the meaning of the problem, or aid in the managing of stress afterwards- and four coping models- information seeking, direction action, inhibition of action, intraphsychic behavior).


Psychosocial Theories: Racial and Ethnic Identity Development

Cross's Model of Psychological Nigrescence:

1. Preencounter- race is unimportant, prefer to be accepted as "human beings." Some people consider race-based physical characteristics to play an insignificant role in their daily lives, while others see race only as a problem that is linked to issues of social discrimination, and even others have negative attitudes.

2. Encounter- Undergoes an encounter & powerfully affected by it. The event is often one in which individuals face a blatant racist event, however there are other instances in which the experience is more positive.

3. Immersion-Emersion- Discard remnants of old identity, commits to personal change.

Phase 1: Total immersion into blackness while withdrawing from other groups

Phase 2: Progression out of dualistic reactionary mode into more critical analysis of black identity

4. Internalization- Beginning of resolution involving old identity and new black worldview.

5. Internalization-Commitment- Translates new identity into meaningful activities that address concerns and problems shared by African Americans.

Helm's Model of White Identity:

- Phase 1: Abandonment of Racism

Status1: Contact- Encounter the idea of black people.

Status 2: Disintegration- Conflicted acknowledgement of whiteness while recognizing moral dilemmas associated with being white.

Status 3: Reintegration- Acknowledge white identity while attending information confirming stereotypes of African Americans.

- Phase 2: Defining a Nonracist White Identity

Status 4: Pseudo-Independence- Acknowledging responsibility for racism while trying to understand which ways white people perpetuate racism.

Status 5: Immersion Emersion- Whites replace stereotypes with more accurate information about being white in the U.S.

Status 6: Autonomy- Requires white people to internalize, nurture, and apply new definition of white identity.

Phinney's Model of Ethnic Identity Development:

- Stage 1: Diffusion-Foreclosure- Individuals fall into two categories based upon the influence or knowledge of the existence of ethnicity (Diffusion- an individual has not encountered ethnicity as an issue or topic, ethnicity is not an issue of contention; Foreclosure- an individual has collected information about ethnicity from family and peers, and succumbs to information without interacting with individuals of the ethnic group).

- Stage 2: Moratorium- Becomes increasingly aware of ethnic identity issues, exploration starts

- Stage 3: Identity Achievement- Individuals are suggested to have a positive, bicultural identity; informed about their own ethnicity but are aware and appreciative of all ethnicities.


Psychosocial Theories: Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identity Development

Cass's Model of Homosexual Identity Formation:

- Stage 1: Identity Confusion- "Who am I?"- First awareness of gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) thoughts, feelings, attractions; with confusion & anxiety

- Stage 2: Identity Comparison- "Maybe this is just temporary"- Accept possibility they might be GLB, confronted with issue of how to manage social alienation that accompanies a GLB identity

- Stage 3: Identity Tolerance- "I probably am homosexual"- Acknowledge they are GLB and seek out others to reduce feeling of isolation

- Stage 4: Identity Acceptance- "Homosexuality is OK"- Positive connotation on GLB, become comfortable with self and others

- Stage 5: Identity Pride- "These are my people"- Individuals focus on GLB issues and activities

- Stage 6: Identity Synthesis- "I am homosexual, and..."- GLB and heterosexual worlds are less dichotomized and individuals are judged on basis of their personal qualities and not sexual identity

D'Augelli's Model of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Development:

1. Exiting heterosexuality- recognition that feelings and attractions are not heterosexual, coming out

2. Developing a personal lesbian/gay/bisexual identity status- challenge myths about being GLB

3. Developing a GLB social identity- create a support network of people who know and accept sexual orientation

4. Becoming a GLB offspring- disclose identity to parents and redefining relationship

5. Developing a GLB intimacy status- Establish first meaningful relationship; use of peer groups is sometimes necessary to facilitate the meeting process

6. Entering a GLB community- Make commitment to social and political action


Cognitive-Structural Theories

Perry's Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development:

1. Basic Duality- Seeing the world dichotomous: good-bad, right-wrong, black-white, facts, authorities have correct answers

2. Multiplicity Prelegitimate- Seeing there may be other answers, facts might not always tell the truth & authority isn't always correct

3. Multiplicity Legitimate but Subordinate- Know there are other answers, not living by that thought

4a. Multiplicity Coordinate- Know and understand there are multiple answers & ways to view situations

4b. Relativism Subordinate- Know and understand there are multiple answers and ways to view situations and start to think about supporting those opinions

5. Relativism- Looking at each viewpoint or answer and seeing what makes the most sense or what the right answer is for them

6. Commitment Foreseen- Making a commitment or trusting in the opinions of others or the viewpoints they feel are correct for them

7-9. Evolving Commitments- Revisiting those commitments and making changes when necessary

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development- Stages of Moral Reasoning:

Level 1: Preconventional/Egocentric

Stage 1: Heteronomous Morality- Obeying rules to not be punished

Stage 2: Individualistic, Instrumental Morality- Follow rules if it is in their interest to do so

Level 2: Conventional/Sociocentric

Stage 3: Interpersonally Normative Morality- Living up to expectations of those to whom one is close

Stage 4: Social System Morality- Social system is made of a consistent set of rules and procedures equally

Level 3: Postconventional/Ontocentric

Stage 5: Human Rights and Social Welfare Morality- Rightness of laws are evaluated to promote fundamental human rights and values

Stage 6: Morality of Universal Ethical Principles- Involves equal consideration of the point of view of all individuals in a moral situation

Gilligan's Theory of Women's Moral Development:

- Level 1: Orientation to Individual Survival- Individual is self-centered and preoccupied with survival, unable to distinguish amid necessity & wants

- First Transition: From Selfishness to Responsibility- Issues of attachment and connection to others, integrates responsibility & care into repertoire of moral decision-making patterns

- Level 2: Goodness as Self-Sacrifice- Survival becomes social acceptance, reflect conventional feminine values, may give up own judgment to achieve consensus and connection with others

- Second Transition: From Goodness to Truth- Questions why she puts others first at her own expense, examines needs to determine if they can be included in her responsibility, examines needs as truth, not egoism

- Level 3: The Morality of Nonviolence- Elevated to care by a transformed understanding of self and redefinition of morality


Typology Theories

Kolb's Theory of Experiential Learning- Description of Learning Styles:

Diverging (feeling and watching)- able to look at things from different perspectives; sensitive; prefer to watch rather than do; best at viewing concrete situations from several different viewpoints; perform better in situations that require ideas-generation; have broad cultural interests and like to gather information; prefer to work in groups, to listen with an open mind, and to receive personal feedback.

Assimilating (watching and thinking)- prefer a concise, logical approach; ideas and concepts are more important than people; require good, clear explanation rather than practical opportunity; more attracted to logically sound theories than approaches based on practical value; important for effectiveness in information ans science careers; prefer readings, lectures, exploring analytical models, and having time to think things through.

Converging (doing and thinking)- can solve problems and will use their learning to find solutions to practical issues; prefer technical tasks and are less concerned with people and interpersonal aspects; enables specialist and technology abilities; like to experiment with new ideas, to simulate, and to work with practical applications.

Accommodating (doing and feeling)- is the "hands-on" person; relies on intuition rather than logic; utilize other people's analysis and prefer to take a practical, experiential approach; tend to rely on others for information than carry out their own analysis; prefer to work in teams to complete tasks; set targets and actively work in the field trying different ways to achieve an objective.

Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Environments:

Realistic- active and stable and enjoy hands-on or manual activities; prefer to work with things rather than ideas and people; prefer to "learn by doing" in a practical, task-oriented setting; tend to communicate in a frank, direct manner and value material things; perceive self as skilled in mechanical and physical activities but may be uncomfortable or less adept with human relations.

Investigative- analytical, intellectual and observant; drawn to ambiguous challenges and may be stifled in highly structure environments; enjoy using logic and solving highly complex, abstract problems; introspective and focused on creative problem solving, prefer working autonomously, and do not seek leadership roles.

Artistic- original, intuitive and imaginative and enjoy creative activities; seek opportunities for self-expression; prefer flexibility and ambiguity and have an aversion to convention and conformity; generally impulsive and emotional and tend to communicate in a very expressive and open manner; preferred work environment fosters creative competencies and encourages originality and use of the imagination in a flexible, unstructured setting.

Social- humanistic, idealistic, responsible and concerned with the welfare of others; enjoy participating in group activities and helping, training, healing, counseling or developing others; generally focused on human relationships and enjoy social activities and solving interpersonal problems; seek opportunities to work as part of a team, solve problems through discussions and utilize interpersonal skills but may avoid activities that involve systematic use of equipment or machines; communicate in a warm and tactful manner and can be persuasive; prefer work environments that encourages teamwork and allows for significant interaction with others.

Enterprising- energetic, ambitious, adventurous, social-confident; enjoy activities that require them to persuade others; are invigorated by using their interpersonal, leadership and persuasive abilities to obtain organizational goals or economic gain but may avoid routine or systematic activities; effective public speakers; view self as assertive, self-confident and skilled in leadership and speaking; preferred work environment encourages them to engage in activities, such as leadership, management and selling, and rewards them through the attainment of money, power and status.

Conventional- efficient, careful, conforming, organized and conscientious; comfortable working within an established chain of command and prefer carrying out well-defined instructions over assuming leadership roles; prefer organized, systematic activities and have an aversion to ambiguity; rarely seek leadership roles, they are thorough, persistent and reliable in carrying out tasks; view self as responsible, orderly and efficient, and possessing clerical, organizational and numerical abilities; preferred work environment fosters organizational competencies and paces high value on conformity and dependability.